Festival della Scienza Medica 2016

Download the English version of the program 2016

May 19th


Visit with animation at the anatomical Theatre, for primary schools
Two mornings dedicated to children. Primary school students are invited to take part to an “anatomical lesson” in the suggestive Anatomical Theatre of the Archiginnasio. A show where professional entertainers will tell the wonders of the human body in a funny and engaging way. Suitable for: second cycle of primary schools.


Drugs and quality of life: looking for a synergy between University and pharmaceutical companies
Staged by: Farmindustria, Società Italiana Farmacologia, Società Italiana Tossicologia
Speaker/discussant: Sabrina Angelini, Claudio Borghi, Nadia Canova, Giorgio Cantelli Forti, Eugenio Cusimano, Fabrizio de Ponti, Enrica Giorgetti, Patrizia Hrelia, Antonietta Pazardjiklian, Maurizio Recanatini, Lucio Rovati, Marco Scatigna


Between life and death: guided visit with stage drama thorough the famous “Portico della Vita” and “Portico della Morte”
An animated visit in the Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Vita to go through the places devoted to the study of medicine and the care of sick people, reaching the historic Palazzo of the Archiginnasio. A journey through the centre of Bologna accompanied by a weird student that will tell stories and anecdotes of the past university life. Suitable for: lower and upper secondary schools

10.00 – RE ENZO ALL

Eradication of the smallpox and other vaccines
Andrea Grignolio
Responsible of millions of deaths, smallpox terrified thousands generations with its cyclic epidemic outbreaks. The first empirical practices to prevent smallpox (variolation) came from the Far East, but it was only after the invention of vaccination by Edward Jenner at the end of 1700 that humanity started to fight infectious diseases for the first time. This discovery inaugurated the age of vaccines, which led the WHO to declare the global eradication of smallpox in 1979. Today, social frictions, wellness as well as emerging diseases bring back vaccines at the center of public discussion. After the lecture: Introduction to the clinical trials, in collaboration with: Città della Scienza di Napoli


Why the doctor has to tell all the truth even to the children
Giuseppe Remuzzi
How should we behave with children and adolescents affected by serious or very serious diseases? For doctors there is – or, maybe, there was – an unwritten rule made of three principles: 1. never talk to children about their disease; 2. never answer questions about diagnosis and about what may happen later; 3. never talk about death and dying (but still today children die of certain diseases, and so?). In one word, it is seems necessary to lie to children, it was like this for decades – at least in the United States – and children realized it. “Why do children with cancer avoid speaking?” Georg Wolff, a German psychologist, kept asking himself since 1978. Maybe because they know that asking questions to doctors is useless, so they remain silent. It is a frightening silence

11.00 – ATTI ALL

Paediatric Clinic
Simulated hospital rounds with: Giacomo Faldella Andrea Pession
The visits in wards come back: real hospital beds, with young students playing the patients’ role that will tell their clinical record. The public will follow the visits that will analyze similar cases in different time periods. A journey to understand the history and the evolution of diagnosis and medical treatments


From nutrition to endoscopy. The prevention of digestive system tumors in the ages of life
Franco Bazzoli
Luigi Ricciardiello
Rocco Maurizio Zagari
Sponsored by AIRC
Digestive system tumors, in particular those related to the esophagus, stomach and colon, represent the most important causes of incidence and death from cancer. These tumors share risk factors related to lifestyles and nutrition in particular, and also diagnostic and therapeutic instruments, like endoscopy. These tumors can be avoided through primary prevention, which has to start from a young age leading a healthy lifestyle and then on secondary prevention, which means the identification and removal of early lesions, reserved for older people


Adult age and nutrition
Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero
Wei Wei
Adult age represents the crucial phase of life in which we decide how to age healthy. Correct nutrition plays a key role in maintaining a healthy life and it helps prevent the most common pathologies related to senility. What are the staples of this diet? Calorie intake proportional to the amount consumed, few salt, lots of vegetables and legumes, few products of animal origin, extravirgin olive oil, lots of spices and a glass of wine


Choosing Leadership in Medicine
Sponsored by ANMDO (Associazione Nazionale Medici Direzioni Ospedaliere)
Coordinated by: Gianfranco Morrone, Giovanni Pieroni Introduction by: Giovanni De Plato Speakers: Mattia Altini, Carlo Favaretti, Chiara Gibertoni, Domenico Mantoan, Gabriele Pelissero, Roberta Siliquini


Inauguration with the authorities


The Age of Insight: The Quest to Understand the Unconscious in Art, Mind, and Brain From Vienna 1900 to the Present
Eric Kandel
Coordinated by: Fabio Alberto Roversi Monaco
The central challenge of XXI century science is to understand the human mind in biological terms. The possibility to achieve this goal began at the end of the 20th century when cognitive psychology, the science of the mind, merged with neuroscience, the science of the brain. Mind and Brain, the classical philosophical dichotomy, Descartes’ error as told by the neuroscientist Antonio Damasio, returns in the reflection of one of the most important living scientist, the 2000 Nobel Prize, Eric Kandel. Original and sparkling is his choice of a particular form of art; modernist portraiture in Vienna at the beginning of the XX century. According to Kandel, both this aesthetics and that period of time, are characterized by a series of pioneering attempts to connect art and science. A great public reading on art and science meant to inaugurate the II° edition of the Festival of Medical Science of Bologna

May 20th


Visit with animation at the anatomical Theatre, for primary schools
Two mornings dedicated to children. Primary school students are invited to take part to an “anatomical lesson” in the suggestive Anatomical Theatre of the Archiginnasio. A show where professional entertainers will tell the wonders of the human body in funny and engaging ways. Suitable for second cycle of primary schools


Choosing wisely: avoiding bad practices
Sponsored by ANMDO (Associazione Nazionale Medici Direzioni Ospedaliere)
Coordinated by: Ottavio Nicastro, Sandra Vernero Speakers: Piero De Carolis, Eugenio Del Toma, Maria Teresa Montella, Ida Iolanda Mura, Fausto Nicolini, Marino Nonis


Between life and death: guided visit with stage drama thorough the famous “Portico della Vita” and “Portico della Morte”
An animated visit in the Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Vita to go through the places devoted to the study of medicine and the care of sick people, reaching the historic Palazzo of the Archiginnasio. A journey through the center of Bologna accompanied by a weird student that will tell stories and anecdotes of the past university life

10.00 – RE ENZO ALL

From the weeping willow to the aspirin. The evolution of antiinfiammatory drugs
Vittorio Alessandro Sironi
NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) is an acronym introduced in the 1960s to designate a varied class of analgesics, antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs different from steroids. Their 9 empirical discovery is ancient, but the scientific knowledge and the creation of the first chemical products systematically used in medicine can be dated to the last decades of the 19th century, along with the development of pharmaceutical industry. The discovery of the acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), patented by Bayer in 1899, is symbolic. The talk will highlight the history of the medical use of this molecule over time and the evolution of NSAIDs, with their problems – even recent – on the advantages and the side effects connected to their use and abuse. Also the marketing strategies related to these drugs will be discussed, with reference to the events that, a few years ago, led to the withdrawal of some molecules belonging to a new family of NSAIDs (Selective COX-2) for their serious side effects. The issue of the relationship between risks and benefits in a specific medical and pharmacological field will also be discussed. After the lecture: Introduction to the clinical trials, in collaboration with: Città della Scienza di Napoli


Vaccini: un investimento per la salute della popolazione e la sostenibilità del SSN
Nicoletta Luppi
Vaccines are biological products that prevent infectious diseases and some types of cancer. If they are administered according to appropriate strategies, they ensure the control of targeted diseases, but also their elimination or even eradication. Vaccines have also an economical value: investing in prevention from the very beginnig, and throughout the entire life, means spending less money in the future, making the health care system more sustainable and effective in improving people’s health. For these reasons, vaccines can be considered the most cost/effective measure of public health care


Short term memory: why we still need vaccines
Alberto Mantovani
Walter Ricciardi
Sponsored by AIRC
Vaccines are universally recognized as one of the most important preventive tools of public health. The decreased trust towards vaccines, witnessed by the recent reduction of national coverage, recalls all the 10 characters involved – central Government, Regions, medical and public experts – to the identification and fulfillment of EBM vaccine policies able to promote the social, ethic, economic and above all healthcare value of vaccinations


The Titanic metaphor: transplants, waiting lists and choosing criteria
Alessandro Nanni Costa
Antonio Pinna
In order to make it less “tragic”, the choice of which patient has to be the first in the transplant waiting list must to be motivated and transparent: in this way the selection can be at least impartial and comprehensible but still “difficult”. The extraordinary successes of the transplantation medicine represent the scientific achievement that most deeply impressed our collective imagination. But sometimes some doubts may rise. Two protagonists will tell their experience in order to erase the Titanic image and metaphor

11.00 – ATTI ALL

Urology Clinic
Simulated hospital rounds with: Giuseppe Martorana
The visits in wards come back: real hospital beds, with young students playing the patients’ role that will tell their clinical record. The public will follow the visits that will analyze similar cases in different time periods. A journey to understand the history and the evolution of diagnosis and medical treatments


China is getting nearer and nearer
Sponsored by: Intesa Sanpaolo
Welcome By: Luo Ping, Alberto Forchielli, Stefano Golinelli, Gaetano Micciché, Luigi Naldini, Romano Prodi, Marina Timoteo
Closing remarks: Huang Yongyue
Introduction by: Federico Fubini
China has started, in a progressive way, to “consume” well-being and healthcare as our Western world and in particular has started to “ask for” treatments and models to face the internal healthcare problems: it represents a “market” with an enormous potential. The oppurtunities related to “research and development” are also huge, with the Chinese Government and companies, that have made considerable steps ahead in the implementation of the latest technologies. The role of the financial institutions is also relevant as they may accompany the cooperating processes


Fragile ages: children and elderly nutrition
Silvana Hrelia
Giovanni Zuliani
Children and elderly people represent the extremes of the fragile ages, in which a proper lifestyle and nutrition help to grow harmoniously in one case and guarantee a healthy and successful ageing in the other. Regarding children, the main aims of the research in the nutritional field are to fight infant obesity, whereas in elderly people the aim is to maintain a healthy and autonomous life. Both children and elderly people should have a balanced and complete nutrition of the main nutrients and nutraceuticals, keeping in mind that what is eaten can influence health and physical efficiency in both fragile ages


The Personalized Medicine Revolution: are we going to cure all diseases and at what price?
Aaron Ciechanover
Coordinated by: Piergiorgio Strata
With the realization that patients with apparently similar diseases – breast or prostate cancer, for example – respond differently to similar treatments, we have begun to understand that the mechanistic bases of what we thought mistakenly is the same disease entity, are actually 12 different. As a result, we are exiting the era where the treatment of many diseases was used to be “one size fits all”, and enter a new era of “personalized medicine” where the treatment is tailored according to the patient’s molecular/mutational profile. Here, the understanding of the mechanism will drive the development of new drugs. This era will be characterized initially by the development of technologies to sequence individual genomes (transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes), followed by identification and characterization of new disease-specific molecular markers and drug targets, and by design of novel, mechanism-based drugs to these targets. This era will be also accompanied by complex bioethical problems, where genetic information of large populations will become available, and protection of privacy will become an important issue


The future of biotechnologies: innovation opportunities and sustainable growth
Antonio Tosco
Thanks to pharmaceutical research many existing therapies have improved and many new treatments have been discovered to cure diseases thought incurable. Biotechnologies represent the frontier of innovation and the principal source of potential answers to unsatisfied health needs and are also a sector with many growth opportunities, where Italy is proving to be internationally competitive


Doctor Darwin
Pietro Corsi
Medicine was never absent from Charles Darwin’s life. Raised among doctors, nephew of the famous Erasmus, Darwin himself studied, reluctantly, medicine. He addressed himself to texts concerning genetic inheritance when he decided to marry his cousin, Emma Wedgwood. He believed that the diseases suffered by his children where due to inbreeding; he himself tried everything to relieve his own sufferings


…from one pill to another… How Italian people’s sex habits have changed in the last 60 years
Giuseppe Martorana
From the end of the war until today, Italian people’s sex habits have deeply changed: from sex intended only for procreation to sex as pleasure, from the indissolubility of marriage to divorce, from homosexuality negation to gay pride, from elderly sexual quiescence to the ever green, etc, Radical changes have also occurred in the clinical field: from the birth control pill to Viagra, from penil implants to transsexual surgery, from laparoscopy to robot, etc. It is difficult to say how these elements may have influenced one another. Speaking, this time, is not a sociologist or a sexologist but an urologist, witness of this clinical-social evolution

15.00 – RE ENZO HALL
Healing on the web
Sponsored by: CISCO


The ages of fertility
Eleonora Porcu
Marielle, Madagascar: “I was consigned to my husband when I was little. When I was 13 I gave birth to my first child”. Every year in the world 2 millions of girls, aged less than 15, become mothers. Rajo Devi Lohan, 72 years old, after 18 months from the birth of her daughter, is in desperate conditions but declares: “I don’t care about being sick, I lived enough to become a mother”. Opportunities, geography and the stages of fertility


De senectute
Giangiacomo Schiavi
Carlo Vergani
It is now necessary to redefine the stages of life. The limit that defines old age is dynamic: in Italy, in the middle of the last century, life expectation at 65 years was 13 more years whereas today 13 years are the expectation of a 75 year-old person. The age between 65 and 74 14 years is today considered the one of the young olds, a population that shares with young people a great part of biological characteristics. So, now there seems to be a mismatch between chronological and biological age. The great part of the elderly’s handicap has nothing to do with their own physiology, but it is the result of a society which privileges the supremacy of youthfulness. Only by recognising and defending their different normalcy, the elderly people find out that their life makes sense


Face, surgery and 3D technologies. Maxillo-facial achievements and frontiers
Alberto Bianchi
Claudio Marchetti
One of the medical areas in which new technologies have been mostly used in the last decades is the maxillofacial surgery: personalised CADCAM prosthetics, virtual simulations, 3D techniques and intraoperative navigation are now used daily to cure neoplasms, injuries and facial anomalies. Have Doctors got closer to patients in this way? Are they able to understand them more and to accompany them throughout the experience of the desease? A question is making its way through. What is the real role of modern technologies in medicine: are they merely useful or really decisive?


The relationship among health, healthcare and politics in Republican Italy: from the first centre-left wing party until today
Roberto Balzani
Few people have considered it from a historical point of view, but the relationship between politics and health is, in Italy from 1960 onwards, decisive. The end of old charity congregations, together with the modernization of the local healthcare and the affirmation of the universal system, change interlocutors, places of power and sources of 15 supply. An open battle between the center and the outskirts of the city which is still going on

17.30 – ATTI ALL

Patient’s history in today’s medicine
Staged by: Elena Vegni, in collaboration with Ivan Fossati, Antonella Gullotta, Giulia Lamiani
In collaboration with: Ordine dei Medici di Bologna
Doctor-patient communication is more and more central in magazines. Sometimes it is discussed in a general way suggesting to humanize medicine, other times in a more urgent way: can effective communication modify patients’ compliance? Can we change the way doctors communicate? With these and more questions we will enter a medical office to follow a patient’s history. We will also reflect together, doctors and patients, about how crucial, tiring and intense it is to build a good relationship with ill people, in which the principle aim should be a good communication


Age of onset of mental disorders: new knowledge and effective interventions
Mariano Bassi
Giovanni De Girolamo
In the last 20 years international survey have shown that up to the 75% of mental disorders start between 15 and 25 years of age: but the services for mental health mostly treat people out of this age range. It is necessary to redefine services and to switch from late and less effective interventions to early and more effective ones. It is also necessary to increase medical knowledge regarding mental health problems among young people

18.00 – RE ENZO ALL

Oocyte development
Renato Seracchioli
Oocytes constitute women genetic patrimony: they are contained in the female gonade, the ovary, and they reach the maximum number of 7 millions at the 5th month of fetal life. Subsequently the production stop 16 to give way to a progressive reduction, so that at birth we register about 2 millions oocytes and during puberty about 300.000. Less than 1% of those oocytes, that are only about 500, will develop in the period between puberty and menopause and will be suitable to be fertilized. The process of conservation, maturation and selection of oocytes is really complex. We will try to understand it more through the experience (half-serious) of an oocyte that illustrates all the stages of its life


The sound of silence. Genius and suffering in Ludwig van Beethoven
Maurizio Giani
Antonio Pirodda
Fabio Regazzi
The fact that the musical genius of Beethoven expressed himself despite his deafness is an anecdote known by many. What did his pathology consist of? What was he suffering from? Which diseases and how many stages did he go through before composing the IX Simphony and his famous string quartets, in the silence of his mind? Through testimonies and documents, and with the help of technology and science, Bologna Medicine offers an exclusive event: the compositions of the Maestro heard as he probably heard them, while his disease was getting worse. A moving document and a conference/happening to understand the complex relationship between disease and creativity


The rules of the body. Norm and arbitrariness
Sponsored by: Accademia di Belle Arti of Bologna
Organized by: Piero Deggiovanni, Valeria Roncuzzi, Camilla Roversi Monaco
The exhibition will feature a specimen on the representation of the body between art and science. More than 30 graphic artworks will be presented together with a sampling of rare, antique, illustrated editions and a significant exhibit of statues belonging to the precious plaster cast gallery of the Institution. 17 A section will introduce the public to recent artistic-video reproductions that will deal with the multiple connotations of the body as a place of conflicts, comparisons and ontological, existential and identity questioning


Mozart: machine, time, death
Luigi Gerli
Giuliano Lancioni
A conference-concert on the relationship among machine, time and death, in Mozart’s music and among enlightment culture, automatons and exoticism, with the mechanical musical instruments of the Marini Collection and the antique instruments of the Tagliavini Collection: Mozartian music for mechanical organ as a metaphor of the vision of time and of the stages of life at the end of the 18th century


Discovering the genes of immunity: genetics in the service of health
Bruce Beutler
Introduction by: Lucio Ildebrando Maria Cocco
Our immune system is composed of two lines of defence. The first one is constituted by innate immunity, and when microorganisms overcome this line, adaptive immunity intervenes through T and B lymphocytes, that produce antibodies and killer cells able to destroy microorganisms and infected cells. Once the pathogen is destroyed, the adaptive immune system maintains an immunological memory. The discoveries that have revolutionized the concept of immune defenses have been achieved studying the defense mechanisms of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), with particular reference to the Toll gene family, involved into the embryonic development. These results have demonstrated that fruit flies and mammals use similar molecules in order to activate innate immunity


FR 17.3 Nel Segno
By: Gianluca Cingolani
Curated by: Dugong Produzioni
Art installation on the memory of sign language

May 21st


Presentation of a National Research Web for the identification of myelodysplastic syndrome markers
Carlo Maria Croce


Between life and death: guided visit with stage drama thorough the famous “Portico della Vita” and “Portico della Morte”
An animated visit to the Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Vita to go through the places devoted to the study of medicine and the care of sick people, reaching the historic Palazzo of the Archiginnasio. A journey through the centre of Bologna accompanied by a weird student that will tell stories and anecdotes of the past university life. Suitable for: lower and upper secondary schools


From quinine to artemisinin: a history of antimalarial treatments (China)
Marco Corsi
Zhu Xiaoxin
For centuries, malarial fevers were attributed to miasmas coming from the swamps. Indeed, the word “malaria” comes from “mala aria”, literally “bad air”. Only in 1898, parasitologists discovered that the infection was conveyed by mosquitos bite. Already 250 years ago a drug effective against malaria had been discovered, the quinine. The new frontier of antimalarial therapies is interestingly connected to the Vietnam War, and the related discoveries that led to the 2015 Nobel Prize, awarded to the Chinese Professor Tu Youyou will be discussed

10.00 – RE ENZO ALL

The future emerging diseases come from the past: from tuberculosis to super-bacteria
Marina Tadolini
Pierluigi Viale
Every period in the past had its own “infections”,, and there are various infective pathologies that continuously accompany humans:: they seem to disappear but then come back, or they seem like something unexpected but they have always been there. For example, tuberculosis, that has returned to be a worldwide health problem and the multi-resistant superbacteria that are freightening health organizations both in the north and south of the world, and coexist with medical scientific advances


Sleep, health and well-being
Francesca Milano
Giuseppe Plazzi
Claudio Vicini
Sleep breathing disorders are highly frequent and represent the cause of several effects on health and quality of life. If they are not treated, they are related to an increase in the cardiovascular risk. In children, they can be responsible of a growth delay, hyperactivity and poor school performance. In adults, they can worsen the capacity to concentrate, driving vigilance, induce somnolence during the day and cause metabolic alterations. In elderly people, they can compromise cognitive capacities. Snoring and sleep apnea studies started in Bologna in the 1970’s and are considered a milestone in the neurological research of the last century. The therapies and prevention available today involve different medical specialties that are able to face and solve in an integrated way the multiple consequences of this pathology


I and the new technologies: an independent life for people with spinal cord injury
In collaboration with Montecatone Rehabilitation Institute
Introduction by: Augusto Cavina, Marco Gasparri
Coordinated by: Filippo Preziosi
Speakers: Nicola Gencarelli, Luca Enei, Domenico Nocera, Roberta Vannini, Pasquale Fedele
With the witness of: William Boselli
Sponsored by: Montecatone Rehabilitation Institute
The Montecatone Rehabilitation Institute is home every year to approximately 500 people with medulla lesion from all over Italy. During the recovery, the rehabilitation project aims at achieving the maximum recovery of reachable autonomy against a permanent disability. And then? Then, it is necessary to rethink a life that can be a real Life. Today, new technologies offer growing opportunities to live an independent life also when the disability is strongly impactful

11.00 – ATTI ALL

Cardiology Clinic
Simulated hospital rounds with: Claudio Rapezzi
The visits in wards come back: real hospital beds, with young students playing the patients’ role that will tell their clinical record. The public will follow the visits that will analyze similar cases in different time periods. A journey to understand the history and the evolution of diagnosis and medical treatments


Qi – The live blow. Discovering Traditional Chinese Medicine
Staged by: Marcella Brizzi, Marina Timoteo
Speakers: Fu Baotian, Renato Crepaldi, Umberto Mazzanti, Clara Melloni, Emilio Minelli, Wang Wenming
Traditional Chinese medicine doesn’t have to be considered as an alternative medicine but as an integrative one compared to western medicine: it is a different approach to the study and cure of the same pathologies. In this view, two different souls of Traditional Chinese Medicine can be identified: one that acts on therapies relating to western medicine, and one that acts on lifestyle. A reflection on the possible integrations


When the brain degenerates. Which cognitive resources
Fiorenzo Conti
Cesare Cornoldi
Cerebral aging represents a field of great scientific and social interest. In the great area concerning cerebral aging, cognitive decline is 22 certainly the most interesting as well as worrying aspect. Are we all subjected to cognitive decline? When? And does it involve all the aspects of our cognitive abilities? What is being done? And, above all, what can we do right now (or what should have we done already)?


From medical genetics to genetic medicine. Pathological inheritance in the history of medical thought
Gilberto Corbellini
The application of genetics to the problems of the diseases’ causes has given way to medical genetics, which managed – and still manages – to identify the genes’ variants leading to a pathological phenotype. This is an approach that characterizes also the use of genomic tools in medicine. Actually, genetics is not a body of knowledge that can be separated from evolutionary and developmental biology. The pediatrician Barton Childs suggested a theory of medicine, that he called “genetic medicine”, based on the knowledge of physiological and evolutionary genetics, and thus able to explain, better than any other approach, the several and complex dynamics from which human health and disease come from..


Counterfeiting health
Giorgio Cantelli Forti
Stefano Cinotti
Patrizia Hrelia
Claudio Vincelli
Counterfeiting is a crime, a planetary problem, a great threat towards public health that also involves food and medicines. An illegal turnover of 1,1 billion a year for the food industry. Ten per cent of medicines sold in the world is counterfeit, including cases of poisoning and intoxication. This phenomenon is increasing and evolving: shopping channels are multiplying and techniques to bypass controls are expanding. However, in our Country there are people who monitor the phenomenon to safeguard health

15.00 – RE ENZO ALL

Doping ages
Francesco Botrè
In a world where result, performance and record seem to count more than effort, motivation or enthusiasm, the temptation of doping can go beyond the sport field: a sort of “pact with the devil” that accompanies human beings throughout the stages of their life experience. What risks do we take when we surrender to temptations such as shortcuts, cheating and deception against others and ourselves?


Working on Qi and the art of cultivating life: experiences with qigong practices, taijiquan and baguazhang under the “Portico della Morte”
Renato Crepaldi
Giovanni Gatti
Clara Melloni
Under one of the first and most emblematic places of western medicine in Bologna, the Death Arcade of the Archiginnasio, we will experiment one of the most fascinating activities of Traditional Chinese Medicine


What can we learn from the study of rare diseases?
Andrea Bartuli
A rare disease (RD) is every morbid condition, congenital or acquired, with an incidence lower than 1 case every 2000 inhabitants. For most RDs there are no therapies that can “heal” the patient, but only treatments that can make the pathology chronic. Because of the rarity of the single diseases, there are no declared valid protocols based on evidences. Nevertheless, RDs are wonderful opportunities: the organization of survey for homogeneous groups, the immediate transfer of research into clinical practice, the development of research in collaboration with associations for patients and families’ empowerment, the students and young doctors’ education not only represent a first answer to the families and patients’ needs, but also a 24 wonderful opportunity of growth for both the Italian and European health care


The implications of Genomics between Medicine and Healthcare
Giuseppe Novelli
DNA is life, the rest are details! This is the slogan of an American society of genomics that highlights the importance of DNA in our life. The genome project (HGP), concluded in 2001, got us used to the idea that once it was decoded, the benefits for humanity would have been enormous. Some expectations were exaggerated, but the current developments of molecular genetics are creating the basis to reconsider medicine in its grounds, starting from the knowledge of the genome, looking especially at “how” genes works rather than “why” they exist. This will involve the aggregation of interdisciplinary operative structures in which geneticists have to communicate with chemists, physiologists, clinicians, cellular biologists and computer technicians


Visit with animation at the anatomical Theatre, for families
Two events dedicated to families. Children and their parents are invited to take part to an “anatomical lesson” in the suggestive Anatomical Theatre of the Archiginnasio. A show where professional entertainers will tell the wonders of the human body in a funny and engaging way


Why centenarians are centenarians?
Claudio Franceschi
Centenarians and their family members represent the best model of longevity and healthy ageing, and allow us to identify protective factors towards age-related diseases. The results that we have obtained with an integrated approach (Systemic Medicine) demonstrate the importance of the interaction among environment/life style and genetic, epigenetic and metagenomics factors (intestinal microbiome)

16.30 – RE ENZO ALL

The price of drugs
Luca Pani
There are two main criteria to determine the cost of pharmaceuticals. On the one hand there is the historically obsolete one which assume that the cost of a pharmaceutical represents the purchase of the raw material of which a drug is composed; so it is needed as a “payment” for the active principle milligrams necessary for the therapy. On the other hand, there is the view that take into account theparameters based on the entity/dimension/importance of the clinical benefit generated by the treatment. In the anglo-saxon countries we talk about “value-based pricing”, where the terms benefit, clinical result, clinical value, therapeutic value, etc. serve more or less indifferently to indicate the main parameters that orients the cost


Crime has no age. Medical science and the investigative process
Susi Pelotti
Claudio Rapezzi
What is the age of crime? Are there crimes that are specific to particular age of life? In which way do medical science and investigation influence the debate of the trial? To answer these questions we will discuss how the scientific evolution has influenced trials as in famous and less famous court cases that have seen among testimonies the inspection, the collection of biological traces, DNA, how the Judge, peritus peritorum, interpreted the evidence and how means of communications were able to involve the whole society into an intense debate


Regenerative Medicine
Michele De Luca
Regenerative medicine based on the use of stem cells for tissues’ reconstruction is an important challenge for degenerative diseases’ treatment. Our Country does not lack examples of excellence, even though here research carried out with some of these promising cells finds, more than elsewhere, ideological obstacles and barriers of a “pseudo-ethical” kind, which are scientifically and ethically unjustified

17.30 – ATTI ALL

Clinical eye: the medical science of the individual
Luigi Bolondi
The capacity to solve a medical problem does not always correspond to the doctor’s knowledge and in Medicine, more than in other disciplines, “knowing what to do” is very different from simply “knowing”. The focus of the medical action is not the disease, but human beings that are always unique. We could say that that if the cure is the dress to create for the patient, scientific knowledge represent the fabric, and the doctor, who is a tailor, has to cut and sew the texitile material according to the shape of each patient. Today the scene is even more complex and the clinical eye of a single doctor has to be substituted by the action of a team of specialists


Innovation and sustainability
Massimo Scaccabarozzi
New pharmaceuticals enable tailored and more efficient therapies. The debate on their cost has to start from the necessity to make them accessible, considering their value as an investment, since they avoid other health and social expenses. A health care system for the future has to evaluate the result of the service, for the patient and for the efficiency of the entire Welfare system, letting go some of the logics of the past


Causes and consequences of microRNA dysregulation in cancer
Carlo Maria Croce
Since the discovery of miR-15a and miR-16-1 deletions in CLL, many laboratories around the world have shown miRNA dysregulation in all tumors studied, including the most common, such as lung, breast, prostate and gastrointestinal cancers. Such dysregulation, like the dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, can be caused by multiple mechanisms, such as deletion, amplification, mutation, transcriptional dysregulation and epigenetic changes. 27 As miRNAs have multiple targets, their function in tumorigenesis could be due to their regulation of a few specific targets, possibly even one, or many targets. A future challenge will be to identify all of the targets of the miRNAs involved in cancer and establish their contribution to malignant transformation. An additional challenge will be the identification of all of the miRNAs that are dysregulated by pathways that are consistently dysregulated in various types of human cancers. This point is of particular importance, as instead of focusing on specific alterations in protein-coding oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes — which may be difficult to treat — we could focus on their downstream miRNA targets. If these miRNA targets are crucial for the expression of the malignant phenotype and the cancer cells depend on their dysregulation for proliferation and survival, we can expect that the use of miRNAs or anti-miRNAs will result in tumor regression. Genomic analyses for alteration in miRNA genes or for copy number alterations in various human tumors by deep sequencing is in progress but has not been completed. These studies could provide additional information concerning the involvements of miRNAs in cancer and in many other diseases. Over the past few years, we have observed a shift from conventional chemotherapy to targeted therapies, and miRNAs and anti-miRNAs will contribute extensively to the latter


The ages of skin
Alberto Giannetti
Skin ageing includes cosmetic alterations, dermatitis connected to age and skin cancers. The intrinsic ageing, typical of skin not exposed to sun, is characterized by thin wrinkles, homogeneous pigmentation and dryness. Sun exposure speeds up the ageing process with wrinkles and deep pigmentation alterations. Chronical sun exposure is partly responsible for skin cancers, typical of the elderly

18.30 – RE ENZO ALL

Focus staged by the students of the Faculty of Medicine of Bologna
A group of students deal with some of the Festival’s themes, offering a point of view of that generation that will take up the baton of Medicine and will guide the developments in the XXI century. Using TED-talk: the attention to lifestyle, the relationship between medicine and society and future perspectives of Medical Science


Switches and latches: control and growth of normal and pathological cells
Tim Hunt
Introduction by: Lucio Ildebrando Maria Cocco 
The cell cycle defines the correct proliferation of cells, that is how these remain “good” and not cancerous. Many genes involved into the cell cycle progression were identified at the beginning of the 1970’s thanks to studies conducted on yeast (yes, the one we use when cooking!). The correct cycle progression, that enables the duplication of cells and the life of men, is controlled by enzymes that are called ciclyn-dependent kinases (CDKs). In multicellular eukaryotes the necessity to respond to a major number of internal and external stimuli has enabled the evolution of multiple and diverse CDKs that are fundamental to maintain the correct cell patrimony of each organism. The active part of the CDKs is the target of enzymes that remove or add phosphorus and determine the phosphorylation status of the complex, modulating its activity more finely. Thus, these enzymes are similar to switches that turn on and off the cell cycle progression, whereas stable interactions are similar to bolts or latches that once they are closed they need a key and not just a simple push


Staged by: Accademia di Belle Arti of Bologna

The Artist Sissi and her students of the Academy will offer an approach to the poetic vision of the body through a performative action that, starting from a reflection and an analysis of the 29 epithelial tissue, will lead us to its recreation-regeneration through the tailoring tissue


Fenomenologia del Dottor Raniero: show by Carlo Verdone
A dialogue-interview with Carlo Verdone, a reflection on how cinema has historically interpreted medicine, the role of the doctor and the one of the patient; an overview with some “characters” typical of the roman director’s movies, focusing on the extraordinary character of Dr. Raniero, the obsessive and disturbing doctor of some of his movies. An encounter also with Carlo Verdone and his “incurable” curiosity for medicine and pharmaceuticals

May 22nd

10.00 – RE ENZO ALL

Penicillins and other antibiotics
Mauro Capocci
After the lecture: Introduction to the clinical trials In 1928, Alexander Fleming had a fluke and discovered penicillin, but it took other 15 years in order to start the antibiotics’ revolution. Only after the Second World War, the “miracle drug” was available all over the world. Since then, several new antibiotics have been developed, often through a collaboration between private and public sectors. But all that glitters is not gold: the use of antibiotics has selected resistant bacteria, making it more difficult – especially in the poorest countries – to control infections. This is the challenge for the future, which will require a collaboratior between health care policy and basic research


Back pain. Why do we suffer from it and will never eradicate
Arnaldo Benini
Lumbar back pain (lumbago) is the most common pain. Incidence and gravity are growing up, also among the youths. The 80% of adult suffer at least sporadically, but often continuously, of lumbago. Its causes are the atavistic structure of the lumbar segment of the backbone and the modern life’s adverse conditions to backbone itself. We will not break free from this disease soon


The diseases of information
Alison Abbott
This festival has done a lot to bring the medical sciences to the public in Bologna. But how can we make sure that new medical advances are brought to the public in a responsible way? A journey from the bench side discoveries, through scientific publications like Nature, to the worlds of old and new media


Visit with animation at the anatomical Theatre, for families


The fetus: can it predict its own future?
Peter Gluckman
The fetus does not develop passively under instruction by its genes. Rather it must make developmental adjustments in response to the environment it predicts it will grow up in to maximize its chance of survival. This is the evolved process of developmental plasticity, much of it underpinned by epigenetic change. But predictions can go wrong and when they do the risks of death and illness, particularly noncommunicable disease rise. This new understanding has major implications for public health. It leads to new thinking about the definition of malnutrition and the prevention of challenges such as obesity


Precision Cancer Medicine: Lessons from B Cell Lymphoma
Riccardo Dalla Favera
Recent advances in the analysis of the genome of cancer cells have allowed a dramatic increase in our understanding of the genes and cellular functions that are altered in the hundreds of distinct cancer types. These data are the basis for the development of novel therapies tailored to individual tumor types. These new developments will be illustrated using the example of B-Cell Lymphomas


The future of Italian biomedical research
Elena Cattaneo
With an in intervention by Mario Melazzini, President of AIFA, by video conference Towards which challenges is biomedical research going, in light of the scientific and technological progresses? How does Italy fit in the 32 international panorama? What results is it producing? What are the potentials and the limits of the biomedical research system in Italy? Are there national virtuous examples from which we can learn how to improve the system performance? What should the scientific community and politics do?