DAY 2 – FRIDAY, APRIL 21

09.00/10.30 – AULA DI ANATOMIA DELL’ACCADEMIA DI BELLE ARTI

ARTISTIC ANATOMY SCHOOL
Tour and workshop for primary school students

The aim of this educational activity is to introduce children to the special relationship between art and medical science typical of the study and the history of artistic anatomy. After a brief tour of the historic building of the Academy of Fine Arts, the students will take part in a workshop of anatomical design.
Suitable for: second cycle of primary schools. By reservation only (please reserve by email: festivaldellascienzamedica@genusbononiae.it)

09.00/11.00 – SANTA MARIA DELLA VITA

BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH: GUIDED VISIT WITH STAGE DRAMA THOROUGH THE FAMOUS “Portico della Vita” and “Portico della Morte”
An animated visit to the Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Vita to go through the places devoted to the study of medicine and the care of sick people, reaching the historic Palazzo of the Archiginnasio. A journey through the centre of Bologna accompanied by a weird student that will tell stories and anecdotes of the past university life.
Suitable for: lower secondary schools. By reservation only (please reserve by email: festivaldellascienzamedica@genusbononiae.it)

09.30 – TEATRO DELL’ACCADEMIA DI BELLE ARTI

THE JURY HAS THE FLOOR
Theater event and workshop

A medical case typified by a strong bioethical problematic aspect will be submitted to the students by way of a basic script. The ending of the story will be left “open” on purpose, in order to serve as the starting step for a workshop on the complex scientific, philosophical, and moral issues connected to the case. The students will work in groups, with the support of some expert coordinators, and will thus become the key players of a debate on bioethics. Just like a real jury, they will be summoned to choose the ending that they deem to be the “fairest” one, and will explain their decision to their schoolmates.
Suitable for: upper secondary schools. By reservation only (please reserve by email: festivaldellascienzamedica@genusbononiae.it)

10.00 – SALA DI RE ENZO

THE DNA ORACLE: WHAT WE CAN DISCOVER READING THE GENOME?
Massimo Delledonne
The extraordinary advancements of genetics laid the foundations for reading and understanding the information contained in our DNA, the genome. I “read” my genome for the first time in 2011 and I have been constantly working to decode it since then. It is a difficult but exciting process that, besides allowing me some advantages for the prevention of certain diseases, helps me to know myself better and to explain some of my behavioral attitudes.

10.30 – STABAT MATER  

PHYSICS HELPS MEDICINE
Herbert Welling
The laser is just a light source, but it turns out, that this light source can be a helpful tool in the discipline of medicine for diagnostics, surgery and research. Back to the roots. Already some decades before, the laser allowed the direct observation of thrombus formation in veins and arteries and was further developed as a bloodless scalpel for heavily vascularized tissues, like in liver surgery.  Later, the short laser pulses with femtosecond pulses were developed and applied for modern stent-fabrication or highly precise eye surgery.
For the future there are fascinating but realistic visions. In ophthalmology, the laser may be able to overcome presbyopia or age related macula degeneration. In generating artificial organs or hybrid implants, laser based techniques might be used for the generation of complex 3D tissues by laser printing of biological cells or even for optical control of basic cellular functions, like muscle excitation or insulin production.

11.00 – SALA DEGLI ATTI

VISIT TO THE WARD. EMERGENCY ROOM
Simulated hospital rounds with: Mario Cavazza
As it is by now customary, the Sala degli Atti of Palazzo Re Enzo will host the “visit to the ward”. A travel through time, from tradition to innovation, a tour guided by some leading figures of the Bologna Medical School, along the developments of the science of healing. An exclusive appointment by Bologna Medicina.

11.30 – SALONE DEL PODESTÀ 

INNOVATION AND EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS. WHICH PROMISES FOR NEURO DEGENERATIVE DISEASE
Elena Cattaneo
Embryonic stem cells have been opposed for years and were the object of (unreasonable) lively debates on their supposed “scientific ineffectiveness” meant to contrast their use on the basis of questionable ethical reasons. They are today an extraordinary, irreplaceable tool for understanding the events typifying human development. They also stand out as a unique paradigm of cell multipower, whence special conditions applicable to the latest induced multipower stem cells can be extracted. Last, but most certainly not least, they are at the heart of some sound and rational regenerative medicine strategies. Recently, amazing results were achieved (in research on Parkinson’s disease as well) that represent a concrete necessary precondition to proceed towards future clinical trials. They also express the new ways of thinking constantly raised by cognitive challenges, so that new questions and new opportunities arise – and, sometimes, inexcusable impediments. All citizens, to whom the achievements of science are addressed, must be made aware of all this.

12.00 – AULA DELLE CONFERENZE SOCIETÀ MEDICA CHIRURGICA DI BOLOGNA 

INNOVATION IN ORTHODONTICS AND SURGERY
Renato Cocconi
Mirco Raffaini
Introduced and coordinated by: Giovanni Zucchelli
Is it possible to work on incorrect dental occlusions so as to obtain regular teeth, a pleasant smile and, whenever required, an overall re-balancing of the face? What can be done today, thanks to the new digital technologies, that could not be done in the past? Thanks to the latest innovations, such as digital scanners, computerized tomography, and state-of-the-art software, it is now possible to carry out virtual simulations on patients, e.g. changing the position and shape of teeth, of jaw-bones and of the different parts of the face (nose, chin, cheekbones, etcetera) in order to achieve a functional and aesthetic normalization or even an imitation of what appears attractive in nature. The purpose is to attain highly balanced results that will not reveal any sign of the dental, orthodontic, or surgical treatments carried out.

12.00 – STABAT MATER

SURGERY AND FARMACOLOGICAL THERAPY IN THE TRANSLANT MEDICINE
Antonio Pinna
Nas Undre
Introduced and coordinated by: Luigi Bolondi
Transplant medicine is a most complex specialty, featuring the highest level of clinical and pharmaceutical research. A key problem in the transplant process is rejection, during which the recipient’s immune system react against the transplanted organ, so that the operation proves unsuccessful and it might be necessary to remove the organ from the recipient. In addition to trying to reduce rejection risks by previously seeking to determine immunogenetic compatibility, a successful transplant depends on the immunosuppressant action of drugs fit to inhibit the activity of the immune system. Which roads is pharmaceutical research now exploring to develop new immunosoppressants?

12.30 – SALA DELLA CULTURA

THE VALUE OF GLOBAL HEALTH AND THE PRIZE FOR THE NEW DRUGS
Mario Melazzini
Massimo Scaccabarozzi
Thanks to drugs and vaccines we live better and longer. Today, the ‘Renaissance’ of research makes innovative drugs, as well as targeted, more effective therapies, available to patients. It is necessary for the governance, too, to innovate by enhancing therapeutic results and assessing the overall cost of the whole treatment, not just the cost of drugs, that often produces savings for other welfare items.

15.00 – STABAT MATER  

Made in Germany
INNOVATION IN GERMAN BIOMEDICAL SILENCE
George Bretthauer
Omid Majdani
Thomas Schmitz-Rode
Heiko Zimmermann
Introduced and coordinated by: Stefano Nava
The great progress of the Institute of Applied Computer Science at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Ophthalmology Hospital of the University of Rostock; the promising innovation underlying the bio-hybrid approach for new-generation cardiovascular implants; the sound potential implied by the use of pluripotent stem cells in view of an increasingly accurate treatment customization, while the discovery and development of new drugs proceeds at an ever faster pace. German research with its best structures and prospects opening up to the future of medicine.

15.45 – SALA DI RE ENZO 

STEM CELLS BETWEEN SCIENCE AND (PSEUDO)ETHICS
Michele De Luca
Regenerative medicine based on the use of stem cells for the reconstruction of connective tissues is an important challenge for the treatment of incurable diseases.There is no lack of scientific excellence in Italy. However, in Italy, freedom of research with promising cells such as embryonic stem cells faces, more than anywhere else, scientifically unjustified obstacles and (pseudo)ethical  barriers.

16.30 – ORATORIO DI SAN FILIPPO NERI

RETURN TO THE PAST
Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Mariano Bassi
Pierdante Piccioni
The last day of May 2013 Pierdante Piccioni, the young head physician of the hospital of Lodi, veered off the road with his car on the Pavia expressway. He was taken to the hospital in a coma but when he came out of the coma, six hours later, he had just taken his children to school … on October 25, 2001, twelve years before. A neurological lesion not only erased 12 years of his life, but also took him back in time, when Italy still used the lira and not the euro, and Facebook was still far to come. Stories on the recovery of an identity threatened by the “erasure” of memories due to a brain injury, as told by an involuntary protagonist.

16.45 – SALA DI RE ENZO

THE NEW FRONTIERS OF HEALTH: 6 STARTUPS COMPARED
Cellply, Stem Sel, Neuron Guard, CellDynamics, Wellmicro and Andremacon
Introduced and coordinated by: Fabrizio Landi
Promoted by: Intesa Sanpaolo
Improving mutual relationships, knowledge, fusion of ideas. Six startups meet to assess their business and research activities. A good chance to update, an incentive to build new relations and create new cooperation between the various entities working in the field of life sciences, from biotech to medical devices, from Ict for the national health system to research services.

17.00 – AULA DELLE CONFERENZE SOCIETÀ MEDICA CHIRURGICA DI BOLOGNA 

ANY GIVEN MONTH: MENSTRUATION AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN
Renato Seracchioli
Menstruation is a natural phenomenon that has always accompanied women’s fertile life. However, on cultural and historical grounds, it was sometimes seen as an unpleasant, mysterious, and shameful condition. It appears that such a negative attitude is not restricted to the most marginal social groups or to specific ethnic groups. To what extent do taboos connected to the menstrual cycle still survive? Cultural heritage cannot be easily overcome.

17.00 – SALA DEGLI ATTI

CALL FOR SPEECH
To give voice to future doctors, the Festival della Scienza Medica in Bologna will provide a “speaking corner” for students to take the floor on recent biomedical issues: lifestyles, so-called alternative medicines, the relationship between doctor and patient, the scientific statute of medicine. 

17.30 – SANTA MARIA DELLA VITA 

RARE DISEASES
Laura Crippa
What are rare diseases, which challenges do they pose, but, also, which unforeseen opportunities do they open up in the so-called “personalized” treatments?Over six thousands of the rare diseases acknowledged to date are often characterized by difficult diagnoses, by lack of information, assistance and scientific knowledge, and by disparity and difficulty in accessing treatments and care.Thanks to research, companies now provide new treatment opportunities and drugs, thus allowing for an improvement in the quality of life as well as an increased life-expectancy.

18.00 – SALA DELLA CULTURA

A SILENTI PANDEMIC: THE DIABETES MELLITUS
Giorgio Sesti
Promoted by: Società Italiana di Diabetologia and Fondazione Diabete Ricerca Onlus
Diabetes mellitus is rampant. In Italy, known cases were approximately 1.5 million in 1985 and now are close to 4 million. In addition to known cases, it must be mentioned that there are almost one million people who are unaware of their disease. As a matter of fact, diabetes is often asymptomatic, sometimes for many years, and problems arise exactly because physical ailments are lacking, and no clinical flaws are detectable. Until something serious comes to the fore …

18.00 – SALA DI RE ENZO

THE WEB BALONEY: COFFEE ENEMA AND OTHER INCREDIBLE STORIES…
Luigi Bolondi
The Internet is a formidable tool for spreading knowledge, but also for manipulating brains. Today 80% of patients look for information on their health in the Net, but search engines do not distinguish between scientifically correct information and “hoaxes” that anyone can load in the Net. True, charlatans have always existed but it is compulsory to warn people about the danger of hoaxes when it comes to treatments for cancer: from scorpion venom to shark cartilage, sodium bicarbonate, the Hamer method, Ashkar chickpeas up to coffee enemas, and an endless number of dietary and natural remedies. Why are web hoaxes so successful?

19.00 – SALONE DEL PODESTÀ  

Nobel Lecture
GRID CELLS AND THE CORTICAL MAP OF SPACE
Edvard Moser
Introduced by: Piergiorgio Strata
Coordinated by: Rocco Liguori 
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is part of the brain’s circuit for dynamic representation of self-location. A key component of this representation is the grid cell. Grid cells are active only when animals are at certain locations. These locations tile the environment in a periodic hexagonal pattern, like in a Chinese checkerboard, pointing to these cells as an internal coordinate system for the brain’s map of space. The circuit contains also other functional cell types, such as direction-tuned cells and cells that are active only at boundaries. These are are intermingled among the grid cells. In this lecture, I will discuss how these cell types, all within the same neural circuit, form a rich representation of local space. I will discuss the putative mechanisms of the grid pattern and its developmental origins, as well as possible ways that grid cells could be used in the formation of daily-life memory.

21.00 – CHIESA DI SANTA CRISTINA 

CONCERT HELD BY SOLISTI DELL’ ORCHESTRA MOZART 
Accademia Filarmonica
In collaboration with: Farmindustria
L. van Beethoven, 3 String Trios, n. 3 op. 9 in C minor
W. A. ​​Mozart Flute Quartet n. 1 D, K 285
Since from 2004 the chamber music repertoire is central in the artistic proposal of the Orchestra Mozart, following  the original idea of M° Claudio Abbado, founder and artistic leader. In this actual new fase the Mozart Orchestra, together with the symphonic concerts, works to give value to the chamber Ensemble, from the trio to the octet.