Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2012
Past, present and future of nuclear reprogramming
Experiments involving transferring the nucleus of a somatic cell into an egg cell whose nucleus has been removed (cloning) dates to the end of the 19th century and the first success dates to 1952. In the 1960s nuclear transfer technology was developed experimentally with various results on amphibians and it was discovered that egg cells are capable of reprogramming the nucleus of a somatic cell to produce a new living animal. The birth of the first cloned mammal (Dolly) was only registered in 1997. What applications of these results have already been completed and what are the future prospects of this vast study and clinical development, but also industrial, sector deriving from the use of nuclear transfer technology? This research raises questions of an ethical nature which need to be taken on in the light of the scientific framework of knowledge.